Methods of protection against radiation.
Based on the contents of the first part of the article “Radiation. Basic concepts. Part 1 “, we note the basic principles of ‘Radiation and its damaging factors’ concept:
– Radioactive radiation is divided into Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation.
– Each type of radiation is caused by radiation of the corresponding elementary particles and has a characteristic effect on the human body.
– A comprehensive indicator that takes into account the generalized effect on the human body of the entire spectrum of radio emission – “Radiation dosimetry”. It has quantitative (Sievert, X-ray) and time (Hour) indicators. The amount of radiation and the duration of radiation are interdependent factors and directly affecting the effects of radiation exposure on human health.
– Standards (microsieverts per hour)
0.2 µSv per hour – regular, natural background radiation
0.5 µSv per hour – safe background for humans
10 µSv per hour – a relatively harmless to humans radiation background during short-term exposure (presence no more than a few hours)
Four main methods of protection against radiation exposure can be distinguished:
1. Temporary – to be as small as possible in the area of increased background
2. Spatial – to be located as far as possible from the zone of increased background
3. Protective – through the presence of a barrier between the radiation source and the person
Different types of radiation are characterized by various materials and their thicknesses as barriers:
– Alpha radiation – a thin sheet of paper, rubber (gloves), a respirator. This radiation penetrates shallowly on the surface of the body. More dangerous if swallowed (burns to internal organs). It is important to protect the respiratory system. Respirator solves the problem.
– Beta radiation – plastic, glass, aluminum layer, gas mask. Being in a stone building with tightly closed windows, doors – you can consider yourself relatively safe from this radiation.
– Gamma radiation – the most dangerous radiation in its penetrating ability. It is held back by materials with the highest density – lead, iron, concrete, soil, etc.
The main methods of dealing with it is to apply radiation protection against gamma radiation.
The protective material is characterized by half value layer attenuation coefficient. That is, the thickness of the material, which halves the flow of gamma radiation.
Lead – 1.8 cm.
Steel – 2.5cm.
Concrete – 6.1cm.
Tree – 29 cm.
Water – 18 cm.
Dense soil – 9.1cm.
In addition, it is important to know such a fact that the thickness of the protective material increases its protective properties not directly in proportion to its size (layer thickness), but exponentally! That is, when the thickness of the material is doubled – the protective properties increase by 4 times, when the thickness is increased by a factor of ten – the protection increases by 1000 times! It is important!
That is, for example, at a water depth of 1.8 meters – Gamma radiation will weaken 1,000 times.
The same effect if you are underground and a layer above you is almost a meter.
Draw your own conclusions on how and where to take refuge!
4. Chemical preventive. This method is not so effective but possible to use. It acts already in the case of “after the fact of receiving a radioactive dose”.
Without going into the physiology of the human body, it can be noted that iodine-containing products and preparations contribute to some (very small) extent to reduce the toxic effects of radionuclides on the body. Such products as white bread, nuts, radishes, onions, and garlic contribute to reducing radiation. Useful in this case are such preparations as tinctures of ginseng, eleutherococcus, bio-additives based on chlorella, kelp. Of course, all of the above protection methods are used as a whole.
It should be understood that the initial radiation (the moment of the explosion or another initial radiation source) is active at the time of occurrence. And here it is important to protect yourself given the directivity of the radiation. Subsequently, even in the absence of an initial radiation source, the environment begins to radiate. It is important to protect yourself from dust, water, earth, other substances from getting on the body (protective suit) and inside the body (respirator, gas mask). This includes the “time factor” – you should leave the area with increased radiation as quickly as possible.
An important assistant in this situation is an individual dosimeter. It will help to quantify the radiation background and take into account the time parameter by “collecting” the total equivalent dose that this device will receive while in the danger zone.
Methods of protection against radiation.